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Posts Tagged ‘Iolo’

Yesterday, I featured my pick of girls’ names here at the Nook in 2011.

Now it’s the boys’ turn:

  • Alban — most people associate Alban with St Alban of St Alban’s, Hertfordshire. However, Alban is also an old Welsh word meaning “equinox” and “solstice,” and it features in the Druid names of the Solstices and Equinoxes. As for the saint, there are actually three of them and two are British. The one who gave his name to St. Albans was supposedly a Roman soldier martyred in or around 283 CE. However, there is no evidence for his existence before the late fifth century, and the fact he was executed by beheading is a big give-away that a Celtic divinity lies behind him. If he truly was a real historical figure, his name may derive from the Latin cognomen Albanus “of Alba (Longa).” But this is unlikely, as even the legends say that he was a native Briton. Therefore, real or divine, his name probably derives from the Common Celtic *albiyo- “(upper) world” and “white” — the source of  the Old Welsh alban “solstice,” which brings us full circle.
  • Angus — A wonderful old Scottish name, which still sees plenty of use in Scotland but deserves more attention elsewhere, especially by those proud of their Scottish roots.
  • Ao — Love this short, snappy ‘”-o” ending discovery from France.
  • Faramond — With its splendid meaning of “journey-protection,” Faramond has cropped up more than once this year. Uncommon, but with a long, rich history, I think it’s an underused gem just waiting to be embraced.
  • Felix — Another name which has justly had a lot of mention at the Nook. A great meaning, a great “look,” I love it.
  • Iolo — A very accesible Welsh name with a wonderful past, and lots of great Pagan overtones.
  • Loxias — I’ve always thought this epithet of Apollo would make a glorious name…
  • Lucius — I’m an unashamed champion of this magnificent name from Ancient Rome!
  • Odin — the Norse God, Lord of the Wild Hunt; a great name, especially appropriate this time of year, when he rides his eight-legged Sleipnir in the Wild Hunt — seen by many as one of the sources of the modern myth of Father Christmas and the reindeer.
  • Orion — Another name from the ancient world with a very contemporary ring.
  • Rafferty — I have quite a crush on this fabulous Irish surname which is yet to reach the top 1000 in the US, but was 406th in the UK last year and continues to rise.
  • Rufus — Rufus is deservedly on the rise again on both sides of the Atlantic, but is still far from common.
  • Sol — If short and sweet with a big Pagan/Druid/Wiccan punch is what you’re after, Sol can barely be beaten. For those who have issues with short, snappy names in their own right which might be mistaken for a nickname, there are plenty of “long-form” options, from the biblical — but still distinctly witchy Solomon — to the Pagan-and-proud Solstice, not to mention the magical Latin Solifer.

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It’s the Winter Solstice tomorrow in the Northern Hemisphere (and the Summer Solstice in the Southern — I’m not jealous, really, I’m not).

That is to say, it’s the shortest day, or — as my mum used to say — the longest night.

And whatever your religious persuasion, or none, there’s something special about it.

It marks the very deepest, darkest moment of winter — that’s the bleak bit.

But it means from now on, the days gradually start to lengthen again. The ever turning wheel of the year has shifted, and we’re on our way back to the warmth and light. Yippee!

However, for a few days, each side of the Solstice, to the naked eye, the sun appears to rise and set in the same places — hence the name, from the Latin sol “sun” + sisto “to stand still.”

Of course, we know today that the reason why the sun grows weaker and the days shorten after the Summer Solstice is because the Earth goes round the sun, spinning on its axis, which is on an angle.

But for most of human history (and prehistory) most humans thought it was the sun doing the moving, rising in the East, setting in the West.

As the Winter Solstice approached, they thought the sun was dying; the Sostice marked the point when the sun was reborn, to strengthen and grow until it reached the peak of its power at the Summer Soltice.

No wonder this period is marked with numerous festivals, frequently of light.

Chief among them in the pagan Roman Empire was Sol Invictus — “The Unconquered Sun” — whose birthday was celebrated on December 25.

It is no coincidence that it shares December 25 with Christmas, only celebrated on that date since the fifth century.

December 25 is the first date after the Solstice when the sun stops seeming to “stand still” and the day is discernibly a little longer.

The word “Christmas” actually dates only to the twelfth century. Prior to that, the festivities which took over Sol Invictus were called Yule (the earliest Old English form known is geohol), almost certainly the name of the Germanic pagan festival celebrated at this time.

The ultimate source of the word “yule” is uncertain, but it is either cognate with, or derived from the Norse jól and is, most likely, connected with “jolly,” though there is a bit of a chicken and egg situation about which came first.

The original Norse festival of Jól was celebrated between the 20th and 31st December.

Yule and Yuletide are still used generally as an alternative name for Christmas, as they have for centuries, but it is the preferred name for the season by most Pagans of all persuasions, who usually use it now for the Solstice, rather than December 25.

Druids, however, will often call the Solstice Alban Arthan, which was first recorded by Iolo Morganwg.

So, what names for a Winter Solstice baby?

  • Aglaia — Greek aglaios “splendor”; one of the Graces
  • Alban — Welsh “solstice”; identical to the name of the saint, and quite probably sharing the same roots in the Common Celtic *albiyo- “upper world” and “white.”
  • Amaterasu — Japanese 天  “heaven,” “sky” and 照 “shine”; the name of the Japanese Goddess of the sun
  • Amber — one ancient belief was that amber was the solidified light of the setting sun on the sea.
  • Anwu — Igbo “sun”
  • Apollo — God of the sun
  • Arevik — Armenian name meaning “sun-like”
  • Arthan — An Old Welsh word meaning “winter”, connected by Iolo Morganwg with arth “bear.”
  • Arthur — Druids see Arthur as symbolic of the sun and equate him with the winter solstice.
  • Arun, Aruna — In Hindu mythology, Aruna is the charioteer of the sun.
  • Aster
  • Aten — Egyptian “disc of the sun”; the name of an Egyptian God, considered an aspect of Ra.
  • Aurinko — Finnish “sun”
  • Bay — one of the herbs traditionally added to a seasonal mulled wine
  • Cam — the Romani word for “sun” (and “to love”)
  • Cardamon — a spice added to mulled wines in the Middle Ages
  • Cerah — Malaysian “sunny” and “bright”
  • Chrysogon — Greek khrusogonos “gold-born”; Grisegond is an old variant
  • Cinnamon
  • Citrine — used since the eighteenth century as the name of a type of yellow topaz; it is believed to radiate the energy of the sun
  • Clove — one of the most important ingredients of a mulled wine
  • Cressida — derives ultimately from the Greek mythological Chryseis, meaning “(daughter) of Chryses” — a male Greek name from khrusos “gold.”
  • Day
  • Diell — Albanian “sun”
  • Eguzki — Basque “sun”
  • Enya — in the Native American language of Papai, enya means “sun.” The Irish Enya originated as the Anglicized form of Eithne used by the Irish singer-songwriter Enya; Eithne is an old form of Áine, the name of an Irish Goddess, whose name means “heat” and “light”.
  • Frankincense — an ancient resin, used as an incense since ancient times, and used for purification in Pagan temples. It is considered to be ruled by the Sun even today, and the Ancient Egyptians used it particularly in the worship of the sun God Ra.
  • Geola — Old English form of YULE
  • Gold — associated with the sun since ancient times
  • Grian — an Irish Goddess of the sun, whose name means “sun”
  • Günay — Turkish girl’s name combining güneş “sun” + ay “moon”; Aygün is a variant
  • Haru — Japanese boy’s name: 陽 “sun,” “sunlight”; Haruki, another boy’s name, combines it with 輝 “radiance, shine” or 生 “life,” while the girl’s name Haruko combines it with 子 “child.”
  • Heliodorus, Heliodora — Greek “gift of the sun”
  • Heliostásio — Modern Greek “solstice”
  • Helius — Greek God of the sun; his name means “sun”
  • Heuldro — Welsh “solstice”
  • Heulwen — Welsh haul “sun” + (g)wen “white,” “blessed” and “pure”; used since the late nineteenth century
  • Hina — Japanese girl’s name: 陽 “sun,” “sunlight” or 日 “sun,” “day” + 菜 “vegetables”
  • Honey — associated with the sun since ancient times
  • Iolo — although unrelated, Iolo (with its feminine form Iola) has a very similar ring to YULE…
  • Jólnir — a byname of Odin. Old Norse: jól “YULE”
  • Jolie — French jolie, feminie of joli “pretty,” derives from, or shares the same origin, as the Old Norse jól “YULE”
  • Jolly — sharing the same origin as JOLIE, if you find this too light, why not consider the “long-form” Jolyon, a form of Julian, deriving ultimately from Julius? Although, like Iolo, not related to Yule, the similarities are there…
  • Jua — Swahili “sun”
  • Kem — Romani “sun”; a variant of CAM
  • Khurshid — Old Persian “shining sun”; the name of an angel in Zoroastrianism associated with the sun
  • Light
  • Lucius
  • Lucy — English form of Lucia, the feminine of LUCIUS. St Lucy’s day was celebrated in many parts of Europe last week on the thirteenth; until the switch over from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar, St Lucy’s used to fall on or around the Solstice.
  • Lux — Latin “light”
  • Maeve — Usual modern form of the Irish name Medb, which derives from the Common Celtic for MEAD (cognate with mead itself)
  • Matahari — Indonesian “sun” (from mata “eye” + hari “day”)
  • Mead — a beverage made from HONEY, dating back to ancient times; probably the unofficial official Pagan drink, especially for the Solstices; it shares honey’s associations with the sun.
  • Midwinter — a word used of the Solstice since Angl0-Saxon times
  • Mithras — the Greco-Roman God of the mystery religion of Mithraism, popular with Roman soldiers. His worship arrived from the East in the first century; he is identified with Sol Invictus, and his birthday was also celebrated on December 25.
  • Mull — “mulled wine,” from the verb “to mull” meaning “to warm.” The Island of Mull gets its name from a Gaelic word meaning “bare,” also quite appropriate for the season, since all is bare (the cognate Welsh word is used of bare, “bald” hills).
  • Myrene — an Amazon in Greek myth; Greek: murinês “sweet wine.”
  • Myristica — botanical name for NUTMEG, meaning “fragrant”
  • Naran — Mongolian name meaning “sun”
  • Natalia — from the Latin natale “bitth”; these days, associated with the birth of Jesus, but is just as appropriately applied to the rebirth of the Sun, as celebrated at Sol Invictus; Natalie and Nathalie are the popular French forms, and Natasha, the Russian pet-form.
  • Noel — Anglo-Norman noel “Christmas” from Latin natale —  see NATALIA
  • Nutmeg — another spice often added to a mulled wine
  • Oenone
  • Orange — oranges, being round and, well, orange, are often associated with the sun
  • Oriana — coined by Elizabethan poets in honor of Queen Elizabeth I, from Latin orior “to rise,” used specifically of the rising sun.
  • Orinda — another poetic invention coinage from orior (see Oriana above), this time of the seventeenth century.
  • Orun — Yoruba: òrùn “sun”
  • Phaëthon — Greek “shining”; the name of a son of Helius, famous for almost crashing the chariot of the sun
  • Phanes — a primeval Greek God, associated with MITHRAS; his name derives from the Greek phainô “to bring light.”
  • Phoebe
  • Phoebus — Greek: phoibos “bright” and “radiant”; epithet of Apollo
  • Ra — the Egyptian God of the Sun, whose name means “sun”
  • Ramesses — The name of a famous Pharaoh, meaning “RA/the sun bore him.”
  • Ravi — Sanskrit “sun”
  • Renaissance  — French “rebirth”; generally used since the nineteenth century of the cultural “rebirth” at the end of the Middle Ages, its basic meaning is simply “rebirth” and could be used as a name with reference to the rebirth of the sun at the Winter Solstice
  • René, Renée — French forms of RENATUS
  • Renatus, Renata — Latin “reborn”; used of the rebirth of the sun
  • — Chinese 日 “sun,” “day”
  • Samson — Hebrew: “child/man of SHAMASH”; Sampson is a common variant
  • Saulė — Lithuanian Goddess of the sun, whose name means “sun”; Saulenė is a variant
  • Shamash — major Assyrian God; his name means “sun” in Akkadian
  • Shams — Arabic “sun”
  • Shemshi — Swahili “sun”
  • Sherry — rolled out across the land at this time of year, particularly to leave out for Santa…
  • Soare — Romanian “sun”
  • Sol — Latin “sun”; Norse Sól meaing “sun” is the name of the Norse Goddess of the Sun
  • Solar
  • Solaris — Latin “of the sun”
  • Soleil — French “sun”
  • Solifer, Solifera — Latin “sun-bearing”
  • Soligena — Latin “sun-born”
  • Solstice
  • Solveig — Old Norse sól “sun” + veig “strength”
  • Sonne — German “sun”
  • Sorin — Romanian name, usually derived from SOARE
  • Sorina — feminine of SORIN
  • Sounia — epithet of Athena, from Sounion in Attica, which may, possibly, derive from the Proto-Indo-European root *su(w)en- “sun”; Latinized as Sunia
  • Stella
  • Sulien — Old Welsh name, probably meaning “sun-born”
  • Sun
  • Sunčana — Croatian name from sunče “sun”
  • Sunday — could be interpreted as referring to the Solstices as well as the day of the week
  • Sunlight
  • Sunna — Goddesss of the sun in Germanic tradition.
  • Sunniva — Old English: Sunngifu “sun-given”
  • Sunny
  • Sunrise
  • Sunset
  • Sunshine
  • Surya — Sanskrit “sun”; the Hindu God of the sun
  • Svarog — Slavic God of the sun; Slavic: svar “bright”
  • Tesni — Welsh name deriving from tes “sunshine” and “warmth”
  • Wassail — originally a salutation used when passing a cup to a guest; from the Old English wes hāl “be in good health”; in time it came to be used of the drink too, especially the spiced ale drunk during the twelve days of Christmas
  • Wine — another popular beverage of the season, especially mulled
  • Winter
  • Yáng — Chinese  陽 “sun,” “positive”
  • Youko — Japenese girl’s name: 陽 “sun” + 子 “child”
  • Yule — of course. Also the fab variant Yul. Yule was actually used as a given name in medieval times (with a feminine form Yula), surviving for some time on the Isle of Man in the form Jole.

With Yule and Sol Invictus to celebrate, I’ll be back at the Nook when the mead’s worn off…

A bright and blessed Solstice, Yule, Alban Arthan and Christmas one and all. :)

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Since moving into the Nook, I’ve been on an odyssey around the world and through the ages, and it occurred to me that it was about time I came home and featured the names of Wales.

Wales belongs to the Celtic fringe — along with Ireland, Scotland, Cornwall and Britany. Of the Celtic lands and regions of the British Isles, Wales has preserved its language more successfully than any of the others; it is actively spoken across the Principality as a first language, and many others speak and understand some Welsh.

If you visit Wales, you are virtually guaranteed to hear some Welsh spoken. The same is sadly not true or Ireland or Scotland, where even in the regions where Irish and Gaelic are spoken, you’ll be lucky to hear the native tongue, unless you actively seek it out.

You might think, then, that the old Welsh names had survived in use along with the language. As far as a handful of names are concerned, you would be right. But by the mid 19th Century, most of the names used in Wales were English — most of the Welsh names had been consigned to history.

Only in the late 19th Century, with the rise of Welsh nationalism, were the old names revived. Since then, they have gone from strength to strength.

The majority of babies in Wales still receive the same names as in the rest of the English-speaking world. But a great many receive Welsh ones as a first or second name — names which have a distinctly foreign, mystical ring to an English ear.

It is my intention to make a big thing of Welsh names here at the Nook over time. They are close to my heart, and there are a lot of extremely beautiful names with great meanings which are surprisingly accessible to non-Welsh speakers. If the Celtic calls to you, why not consider a name from the Land of Song?

These are some of my personal favorites:

Girls:

  • Aneira (pronounced ‘an-AY-ra’) — the intensive prefix an-carrying the sense of ‘very’ or ‘much’ + eira ‘snow’. Probably first inspired by the boy’s name Aneirin, and used since the late 19th Century. Eira is also used on its own.
  • Annwyl — ‘dear’ and ‘beloved’. In use since the 1930s.
  • Anwen— a modern combination of Ann + the –wen ending found in so many Welsh girls’ names, which is the mutated femining form of gwyn ‘white’ and ‘blessed’. Ann here is sometimes interpreted as the intensive prefix an-, like Aneira and Angharad.
  • Blodwenblodyn ‘flower’ + gwyn ‘white’ and ‘blessed’. A traditional Welsh name, found in the Middle Ages and revived at the end of the 19th Century
  • Branwenbran ‘crow’, ‘raven’ + gwyn ‘white’. In Welsh mythology, the name of the sister of Bran the Blessed. It was used as a genuine name in medieval times, and revived in the 19th Century.
  • Caryscar ‘love’. Modern name, dating to the early 20th Century. Another variant is Cerys.
  • Eilir (pronounced ‘ay-leer’) — ‘butterfly’. First used at the end of the 19th Century.
  • Eirian (pronounced ‘AY-ree-an’) — ‘brilliant’, ‘splendid’ and ‘bright’. Another late 19th Century coinage
  • Eirlys (pronounced ‘AY-er-lis’) — ‘snowdrop’. Late 19th Century again.
  • Enfys (pronounced ‘en-vis’) — ‘rainbow’. Also first used at the end of the 19th Century.
  • Ffion (pronounced ‘fee-on’) — ‘foxglove’. A modern name inspired by the unrelated Fiona.
  • Fflur (pronounced ‘fleer’) — ‘flower’. Inspired by the use of the French Fleur, Fflur was first used at the end of the 1960s.
  • Gwen — ‘white’ and ‘blessed’ – a very traditional and ancient name. Deserves a post all to itself!
  • Gwenhwyfar (pronounced ‘gwen-HOO-i-var’) — original Welsh form of Guinevere and Jennifer.
  • Hafren – see Fair Sabrina
  • Mabli — Welsh form of Mabel
  • Mared — one of the Welsh forms of Margaret
  • Morwen — ‘maiden’. Welsh equivalent of the Cornish Morwenna
  • Seirian  (pronounced ‘SAY-ree-an’) — ‘sparkling’.  First used in the ’60s.
  • Seren (pronounced ‘seh-ren’) — ‘star’. A modern Welsh name — i.e. not used in medieval times. First used at the end of the 1930s and now a popular choice for baby girls.
  • Tanwentan ‘fire’ + gwyn ‘white’. A modern Welsh name, first used in the 1960s.
  • Tegeirian (pronounced ‘teg-AY-ree-an’) — ‘orchid’.
  • Tirion (pronounced ‘TI-ree-on’) — ‘gentle’ , ‘happy’ and ‘gracious’.

Boys

  • Aneirin (pronounced ‘an-AY-rin’) — traditional old Welsh name, borne by an early poet. Probably from the Latin Honorius.
  • Arthen — ‘bear-born’.
  • Bedwyr (pronounced ‘bed-weer’) — from bedw ‘birch’ + gwyr ‘man’. A character from Welsh myth, who became Bedivere in the Arthurian cycles.
  • Berwynbar ‘peak’, ‘mound’, ‘head’ + gwyn ‘blessed’ and ‘white’. An ancient name, revived in the late 19th Century.
  • Bleddyn (pronounced ‘bleth-in’ — the ‘th’ as in ‘the’) —blaidd ‘wolf’.  Traditional name, revived in the 19th Century.
  • Cai (pronounced ‘ky’ – to rhyme with eye) — Welsh form of Gaius — also deserves an entry of its own!
  • Einion (pronounced ‘AY-nee-on’) — ‘anvil’; traditional old name.
  • Eirian — see girls above.
  • Gwern — ‘alder’; a name from mythology
  • Gwydion (pronounced ‘gwi-DEE-on’) — gwyddon ‘wizard’ and ‘scientist’. An important figure in Welsh mythology. Used asa genuine name from the early 20th Century.
  • Heddwyn (pronounced ‘heth-win’ — the ‘th’ as in ‘the’). Modern name from hedd ‘peace’ + gwyn ‘white’ and ‘blessed’.
  • Ianto (pronounced ‘yan-toh’) — a pet form of Ifan, the Welsh form of John.
  • Iestyn (pronounced ‘yes-tin’). Welsh form of Justin.
  • Iolo (pronounced ‘yol-oh’)
  • Lleu (pronounced ‘lleye’ — the best approximation of the notorious Welsh letter ‘ll’ is probably ‘cl’) — important figure in Welsh myth.
  • Macsen — Welsh form of Maximus; the name of a legendary hero.
  • Morien (pronounced ‘MOH-ree-en’) — very old Welsh name meaning ‘sea-born’.
  • Myfyr (pronounce ‘muh-veer’) — Welsh for ‘muse’ and ‘meditation’. Used since the late 19th Century.
  • Myrddin (pronounced ‘mur-thin’ — the ‘th’ as in ‘the’) — Welsh form of Merlin. In use in the Middle Ages, and revived in the 19th Century.
  • Peredur (pronounced ‘peh-REH-deer’) — peri ‘spear’ + dur ‘hard’. The name of one of King Arthur’s knights — he became Percival in English. Used since the 19th Century.
  • Rhodrirhod ‘wheel’, ‘circle’ + rhi ‘ruler’ and ‘king’; trad old name.
  • Rhun (pronounced ‘rheen’) — ‘mystery’ and ‘charm’. The name of a character in Welsh mythology. First used as a real given name in the late 19th Century.
  • Rhydian (pronounced ‘RID-ee-an’) — probably from Old Welsh rhudd ‘red’
  • Seirian  (pronounced ‘SAY-ree-an’) — ‘sparkling’.  First used in the ’60s.
  • Taliesin (pronounced ‘tal-ee-EH-sin’ — although ‘tal-ee-AY-sin’ is often heard) — the name of a legendary bard, to whom a corpus of early medieval poetry is attributed. From tal ‘brow’, ‘forehead’ + iesin ‘fair’, ‘beautiful’ — often translated as ‘shining’.
  • Tegid (pronounce ‘teh-gid’) — from Latin tacitus ‘serene’ and ‘quiet’. The name of a character in Welsh mythology, as well as the Welsh name of Bala Lake. First used as a genuine name in the late 19th Century.

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Iolo Morganwg

For the penultimate day of Sneak Peek Week, I’m coming home to Wales, to bring you a name little known outside the Principality — except perhaps, by Druids: Iolo (pronounced ‘yol-oh’) — and friends.

Iolo

A Welsh name with a somewhat disputed history. It is mostly regarded today as a pet-form of IORWETH, but it is argued by some that it is actually the Welsh form of JULIUS. Bearers: Iolo Morgannwg, the Bardic name of Edward Williams (1747-1826), often called the father of Modern Druidry, whose work the Barddas was highly influential in the Druid revival.

Iorwerth

Welsh: iôr ‘lord’ + gwerth ‘worth’. A name borne by numerous figures in Welsh history, it is one of a handful of genuinely Welsh names which have remained in constant use since at least medieval times. Anglicized as Yorath. Variant: Iorath.

Julius

The gens Julia is probably the most famous of all the Roman families. It claimed descent from the Trojan Hero Aeneas, son of Venus through his son Ascanius, who was also called Iulus. The legend has it that he was originally called Ilus – from Ilia, another name for Troy — but his name was corrupted. In fact, it is more likely that the name is a diminutive form of Iovis, the genitive of Jupiter (and from which we get Jove), and that the family was originally dedicated to him. Used since the 16th Century – often as Julius Caesar. Bearers: Julius Henry ‘Groucho’ Marx (1890-1977), the US comic actor; Julius Rosenberg (1918-53), whose execution as a communist spy during the McCarthy era remains controversial. Italian: Giulio, Hungarian: Gyula, French: JULES, Portuguese, Spanish: Julio, Polish: Juliusz, Russian: Yuliy.

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